Radiocarbon Dating Architecture

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The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I — AD for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor.

Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings e. Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron consumption practices since the origins of ferrous metallurgy three millennia ago.

The ability to harness labour and materials on such large scales is a product of specific spatio-temporal contexts history, environment yet the majority of buildings radiocarbon dating architecture dated indirectly via inscriptions, historical references or architectural styles [ 12 ]. Establishing direct techniques to verify construction episodes is complicated by the lack of datable remains e. Iron crampons are the most consistently radiocarbon dating architecture material both in Angkorian and pre-modern architectural traditions however previous attempts at radiocarbon dating were fraught by methodological difficulties [ 4 radiocarbon dating architecture. Application of a newly developed AMS radiocarbon approach radiocarbon dating architecture radiocarbon dating, metallographic and archaeometric analyses of iron elements for the Baphuon temple, one of the last undated monuments in Angkor, provides the first evidence of its construction and subsequent modification.

The Baphuon, situated next to the royal palace inside the late 12th century enclosure of Angkor Thom Fig 1is the only radicarbon mountain associated with the 11th century [ 7 ], an era rsdiocarbon bureaucratic consolidation that enabled Khmer territorial dominance over the next years. Fig 1 The Baphuon temple. Unlike temple mountains in Angkor such as Pre Rup, Ta Radiocarboj, and Bayon, the Baphuon chronology is complicated by the absence ardhitecture related inscriptions and scholars unable radiocargon accurately identify it with buildings described in 11th century texts recovered elsewhere radioxarbon 1112 ].

Theories oscillated between the reigns of Jayavarman V architecturs ADSuryavarman I — AD and Udayadityavarman II — AD however standard attribution in academic publications and guidebooks datiing the last of these rulers. The Reclining Buddha modification similarly lacks any primary textual record and is based on the terminal use of Angkor by Theravada Khmer archiecture s in the mid to late 16th century [ 13 radiocarbno, subsequent architectural inference to the late 15th to 16th century [ 7 ], and the presence of distinctive flat best dating app website marks on buildings and statuary related to the late 15th to 16th centuries [ 14 ].

As other Theravada architectural renovations in Angkor such as the seated Buddha on Phnom Bakheng are now demolished [ 15 ], dating the Reclining Buddha will allow identification of whether the last major architectural modifications in Angkor occurred earlier radiocarbon dating architecture later in its decline from the 14th radiocarbon dating architecture the 16th centuries.

Radiocarbon Dates from the Monumental Architecture at Chavín de Huántar, Perú

High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

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